An introduction to the analysis of kants moral theory

For the critique of Brandt, see Chapter XI. Nowadays, however, many would regard Kant as being overly optimistic about the depth and extent of moral agreement. In addition, Kant thought that moral philosophy should characterize and explain the demands that morality makes on human psychology and forms of human social interaction.

If this were the sort of respect Kant is counseling then clearly it may vary from person to person and is surely not what treating something as an end-in-itself requires. This is a third reason he gives for an a priori method, and it appears to have been of great importance to Kant: It requires us to exercise our wills in a certain way given we have antecedently willed an end.

Immanuel Kant Critical Essays

What makes it intrinsically good, an end in itself, indeed the ultimate end of moral thought and action. And if we do not mix wool and linen, or we light the Sabbath candles, these are sacred acts by which we feel the holy Will of God, regardless of rational justification or moral purpose.

Intuitively, there seems something wrong with treating human beings as mere instruments with no value beyond this. Duties are rules or laws of some sort combined with some sort of felt constraint or incentive on our choices, whether from external coercion by others or from our own powers of reason.

First, he rejected Kant's claim that animals are not self-conscious. The conception of the free rational activity of the human will at the heart of this Enlightenment vision may perhaps inspire us in new ways. This in turn apparently implies that our wills are necessarily aimed at what is rational and reasonable.

Kant’s Ethics – Summary

This is very far from what we are dealing with in Rudolf Otto, whose objects are the faith and practice of actual religions. Becoming a philosopher, pianist or novelist might be my end in this sense.

So they are "not intrinsic to the experience of the divine as such. The more familiar we are with them, the better. Proper regard for something with absolute value or worth requires respect for it.

For Baron, being governed by duty does not mean that duty is always the primary motivation to act; rather, it entails that considerations of duty are always action-guiding.

Although there is, according to Kant, no rational basis for the belief that the natural world is or is not arranged according to some purpose by a Designer, the actual practices of science often require looking for the purpose of this or that chemical, organ, creature, environment, and so on.

Respect for the value of humanity entails treating the interests of each as counting for one and one only, and hence for always acting to produce the best overall outcome. Although a Kantian physician ought not to lie to or coerce a patient, Hinkley suggests that some form of paternalism - such as through withholding information which may prompt a non-rational response - could be acceptable.

In fact, Otto may have understood better than Goodman; and it is possible that God himself feels more embarrassment than Goodman [ note ]. Routledge,— But this can invite misunderstandings.

As good cultural relativistsperhaps we would need to say that Aztec religion is just as good and beautiful as any other; but, at the very least, their bloody altars and refuse of flayed and mutilated bodies might take some getting used to.

We also have an eye toward doing our part in maintaining civil or social order, toward punishments or loss of standing and reputation in violating such laws, and other outcomes of lawful behavior.

I should act in ways that will bring about the end or instead choose to abandon my goal. Our knowledge and understanding of the empirical world, Kant argued, can only arise within the limits of our perceptual and cognitive powers.

We are to respect human beings simply because they are persons and this requires a certain sort of regard. This we think anomolous discussion may well get at some deep sense in which Kant thought the formulations were equivalent.


In the latter case, the laws have no legitimate authority over those citizens. For Hegel, it is unnatural for humans to suppress their desire and subordinate it to reason. Immanuel Kant Critical Essays. this distinction to the ethical realm in the Critique of Practical Reason, wherein he argued that an individual's moral decisions and political theory.

Immanuel Kant’s Metaphysics THEME In regard to Metaphysics, Kant’s results were seemingly the opposite to what he strove to achieve, cf. the claim, in his Introduction, that “In this enquiry. Thus, Kant argued that if moral philosophy is to guard against undermining the unconditional necessity of obligation in its analysis and defense of moral thought, it must be carried out entirely a priori.

Introduction According to Immanuel Kant the driving force behind our actions should be dictated by what is inherently good as sole consideration and not be based upon the effects of what such actions may produce such as the case in the consequentialist theory of cause.

Analytic and Synthetic: Kant and the Problem of First Principles

Martin Heidegger is widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20 th century, while remaining one of the most controversial. His thinking has contributed to such diverse fields as phenomenology (Merleau-Ponty), existentialism (Sartre, Ortega y Gasset.

This is the most up-to-date, brief and accessible introduction to Kant's ethics available.

Essays on Kant

It approaches the moral theory via the political philosophy, thus allowing the reader to appreciate why Kant argued that the legal structure for any civil society must have a moral basis.

An introduction to the analysis of kants moral theory
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